Shalmaneser's campaigns were not confined to the West. He also invaded Syria ( 2 Kings 17:5 ), but was deposed in favour of Sargon (q.v.) Babylon was taken by storm, and for seven years Tukulti-Mas was master of all the lands watered by the Tigris and Euphrates. Salem Media Group. To the North of the junction of the Tigris and Upper Zab, and opposite the modern Mossul, was a shrine of the goddess Ishtar, around which grew up the town of Nina, Ninua or Nineveh (now Kouyunjik and Nebi Yunus). Elam remained to be dealt with, and an Assyrian army made its way to Susa, which was leveled to the ground, the shrines of its gods profaned and the bones of its ancient kings torn from their graves. Shalmaneser I (1300 BC), accordingly, devoted himself to crippling the Hittite power and cutting it off from communication with Babylonia. After his death the Assyrian power declined; Pitru (Pethor, Numbers 22:5) fell into the hands of the Arameans and the road to the Mediterranean was blocked. Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of learning, and the library of Nineveh owed most of its treasures to him, but extravagant luxury had now invaded the court, and the king conducted his wars through his' generals, while he himself remained at home. The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. VIII. The Assyrians Assyria was a kingdom located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that dominated the ancient world from the ninth century to the seventh century B. C. Its capital was Nineveh. The Assyrians reckoned time by means of limmi, certain officials appointed every New Year's day, after whom their year of office was named. "Entry for 'ASSYRIA'". Its possession was disputed between Semitic Amurru or In 842 BC Shalmaneser penetrated to Damascus where Hazael, the successor of Ben-hadad, who had already been defeated in the open field, was closely besieged. Nineveh in Smiths Bible Dictionary (abode of Ninus), the capital of the ancient kingdom and empire of Assyria. The image of Merodach was carried to Assur as a sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon to the parvenu Assyria. The terror it excited in western Asia is therefore easily intelligible (Isaiah 10:5-14; Nahum 2:11-13; 3:1-4). Elam still remained independent and endeavored to stir up disaffection in Babylonia. It is only the human-headed bulls and winged lions that can be called successful: they were set on either side of a gate to prevent the entrance of evil spirits, and their majestic proportions were calculated to strike the observer with awe (compare the description of the four cherubim in Eze 1). . They conquered an area that comprises what is now Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon. This was also the case with the war-god Nin-ip, called Mas in Assyria, whose cult was specially patronized by the Assyrian kings. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who took Samaria (q.v.) At the least, none of the Bible's claims about the Assyrians have been disproven by reliable scholarship. (2) at the head of it was the national god Asur or Assur, whose high priest and representative was the king. Where do Israel's Lost Tribes live today? Genesis 2:14And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. Whereas in Babylonia the temple was the chief public building, in Assyria the royal palace dominated everything, the temple being merely a royal chapel attached to the palace. Esar-haddon died while on his way to repress a revolt in Egypt, and his son Assur-bani-pal succeeded him in the empire (669-626 BC), while another son Samas-sum-ukin was appointed viceroy of Babylonia. Nineveh was utterly destroyed, never again to be inhabited, and northern Babylonia passed into the hands of Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylon, who had joined the northern invaders. Given all the talk of Syria in the news lately, I was asked if Syria is the same “Assyria” that is mentioned in the Bible. Question: "Who was Sennacherib in the Bible?" The great palace at Kouyunjik (Nineveh) was built by him. After the Assyrians taunted Israel's God to stop them from taking the city, they suffered the worst military defeat in human history by losing 185,000 men in one night (2Kings 18 - 19)! Another early sanctuary of Ishtar was at Urbillu, Arbailu or Arbela, East of the Upper Zab. The early Semitic rulers, however, were subject to Babylonia, and under Khammurabi (\AMRAPHEL\) Assyria was still a Babylonian province. From the early part of the 2nd millennium BC Assyria was the centre of a succession of empires; it was at its peak in the 8th and late 7th centuries BC, when its rule stretched from the Persian Gulf to Egypt. Assyria was a dependency of Babylonia and later of the Mitanni kingdom during most of the 2nd millennium bce.It emerged as an independent state in the 14th century bce, and in the subsequent period it became a major power in Mesopotamia, Armenia, and sometimes in northern Syria.Assyrian power declined after the death of Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1208 bce). His name became the basis for the term Assyria that references both the nation and the people living in the land. The code of Khammu-rabi (Code of Hammurabi) or \AMRAPHEL\ (which see) underlay it, and the same system of judicial procedure, with pleading before judges, the hearing of witnesses, and an appeal to the king, prevailed in both countries. In course of time, however, differences grew up between the spoken language and the language of literature, which had incorporated many Summerian words, and retained grammatical terminations that the vernacular had lost, though these differences were never very great. 2Kings 15:19 - 20, 29And Pul the king of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand. His successor was another military adventurer, Shalmaneser IV (727-722 BC), whose original name was Ulula. 2 Kings 19:37), was as distinguished a general and administrator as his father had been the reverse. According to Esar-haddon the kingdom was founded by Bel-bani son of Adasi, who first made himself independent; Hadad-nirari, however, ascribes its foundation to Zulili. 745) the crown was seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser III. Unlike Babylonia, Assyria abounded in stone; the brick buildings of Babylonia, accordingly, were replaced by stone, and the painted or tiled walls by sculptured slabs. The army consisted of cavalry, infantry, bowmen and slingers, as well as of a corps of charioteers. Under Assur-nazir-pal the sculpture is bold and vigorous, but the work is immature and the perspective faulty. After this, however, Assyria once more fell into a state of decay, from which it was delivered by the successful revolt of a military officer Pulu (Pul), who put an end to the old line of kings and took the name of Tiglath-pileser IV (745-727 BC). after a siege of three years, and so put an end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into captivity, B.C. The Assyrians "were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite" tribes mingled with the inhabitants. Nine years previously his troops had been called upon to suppress a revolt in Cilicia, where a battle was fought with the Greeks. A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, has been found at Kouyunjik: it must have been useful to the scribes, the cuneiform characters inscribed on the tablets being frequently very minute. The dominant type was Semitic, with full lips, somewhat hooked nose, high forehead, black hair and eyes, fresh complexion and abundance of beard. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. In one of his campaigns he made his way to the Mediterranean, and received presents from the king of Egypt, which included a crocodile. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II. Rich, who had first visited Mossul in 1811, examined the mounds opposite in 1820 and concluded that they represented the site of Nineveh. Hence the constant wars partly to occupy the army and prevent revolts, partly for the sake of booty with which to pay it. The Assyrians in the Bible The Bible includes many references to the Assyrian people within the pages of the Old Testament. In character the Assyrians were cruel and ferocious in war, keen traders, stern disciplinarians, and where religion was concerned, intense and intolerant. The earlier high priests of Assur known to us bear Mitannian names. Climate and Productions. In 723 B.C., God allowed Assyria, as punishment for the Kingdom of Israel's many sins, to conquer Samaria and take the people out of the land as captives. It was founded in B.C. In 854 BC he attacked Hamath and at Qarqar defeated an army which included 1,200 chariots, 1,200 cavalry and 20,000 infantry from Ben-hadad of Damascus, 2,000 chariots, and 10,000 infantry from. And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin. In the Bible the name Assyria is employed in three different significations: namely, 1. Assyria, a Greek name formed from Asshur ('ashshur; 'Assour; Assyrian Assur): The origin of the city (now Kala'at Shergat), which was built on the western bank of the Tigris between the Upper and Lower Zab, went back to pre-Sem times, and the meaning of the name was forgotten (see Genesis 2:14, where the Hiddekel or Tigris is said to flow on the eastern side of Asshur). But it differed from the religion of Babylonia in two important respects: (1) the king, and not the high priest, was supreme, and. How far the whole male population was liable to conscription is still uncertain; but the fact that the wars of Assur- bani-pal so exhausted the fighting strength of the nation as to render it unable to resist the invaders from the North shows that the majority of the males must have been soldiers. Then suddenly a revolt broke out throughout the greater part of the Assyrian empire, headed by Assur-bani-pal's brother, the viceroy of Babylonia. For a time the issue was doubtful. The Assyrians were Semites ( Genesis 10:22 ), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the inhabitants. Gen. 10, Nimrod).1 Assyria first appeared historically after the time of the Kingdom of Acca… After the rise of the Second Empire the cavalry were increased at the expense of the chariotry, and were provided with saddles and boots, while the unarmed groom who had run by the side of the horse became a mounted archer. 727, and was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. The city which gave its name to the country and empire, even as it took its own name from the national god, was Ashur. Among the high officials at court were the rab-saki or "vizier," and the rab-sa-risi or "controller," the rabhcaric (\RAB-SARIS\ (which see)) of the Old Testament. Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. The combination of the attributes of the warrior-god, who was the peculiar god of the commander of the army, with the deified city to which the army belonged, caused Assur to become the national deity of a military nation in a way of which no Babylonian divinity was capable. They were a military "people, the "Romans of the East." In stature the Assyrians were of average modern European height, and were powerfully built. The fall of Assyria, long previously prophesied by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:5-19) was effected by the growing strength and boldness of the Medes, about 625 B.C. Asur was originally Asir, "the leader" in war, who is accordingly depicted as a warrior-god armed with a bow and who in the age when solar worship became general in Babylonia was identified with the sun-god. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a yearly tribute. The modern state of Syria was formed after World War I and became independent after World War II. The earliest known to us are Auspia and Kikia, who bear Mitannian names. In his reign the Israelites and Syrians of Damascus first came into direct relation with the Assyrians. Attempts are made to imitate the rich detail and delicate finish of the ivory carvings; the background is filled in with a profusion of subjects, and there is a marked realism in the delineation of them. Holman Bible Dictionary is linked to Easton's Bible Dictionary, Torrey's New Topical Textbook, Nave's Topical Bible, Smith's Bible Dictionary, the King James Dictionary, and Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary. The army was reorganized and made irresistible, and a new administrative system was introduced, the empire being centralized at Nineveh and governed by a bureaucracy at the head of which was the king. Carchemish, the Hittite capital, was captured in 717 BC, a revolt of the states in southern Palestine was suppressed in 711 BC and Merodach-Baladan, the Chaldean, who had possessed himself of Babylonia in 722 BC, was driven back to the marshlands at the head of the Persian Gulf. Sennacherib (705-681 BC) had neither the military skill nor the administrative abilities of his father. Cotton is mentioned by Sennacherib (King, PSBA, December, 1909). Under him the Second Empire reached the acme of its power and prosperity. The chairs and couches were frequently of an artistic shape, and were provided with feet in the form of the legs of an ox. He claims to have reduced to subjection the whole of Syria, including Phoenicia, Edom and Philistia, and to have taken Mari'a, king of Damascus, prisoner in his capital city. And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah in 701 BC was a failure; so, also, was his policy in Babylonia which was in a constant state of revolt against his rule, and which ended in his razing the sacred city of Babylon to the ground in 689 BC. Glass was also manufactured. Water was raised from the river by means of a shaduf. Assur-nazir-pal was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser II (859-825 BC), who, instead of contenting himself, like his father, with mere raids for the sake of booty, endeavored to organize and administer the countries which his armies had subdued. The state religion of Assyria was derived from BABYLONIA (which see) and in its main outlines is Babylonian. About 1120 BC the Assyrian king was Tiglath-pileser I, whose successful wars extended the Assyrian empire as far westward as Cappadocia. Assyria ancient and proper lay east of the Tigris, between Armenia, Susiana, and Media, and appears to have comprehended the six provinces attributed to it by Ptolemy, … Assyrian expansion into the region of Palestine (about 855-625 B.C.) Assyrian history begins with the high priests (patesis) of Assur. III. Assyria is the country to whom God sent the prophet Jonah. Asshur, one of Shem's sons, settled in the general area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Entry for Assyria, Asshur in Smith’s Bible Dictionary. See more. See BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA, RELIGION OF. In B.C. Thebes--"No-amon" (Nahum 3:8)--was destroyed, its booty carried away and two obelisks transported to Nineveh as trophies of victory. They were a military people, the "Romans of the East.". In his later days, when too old to take the field himself, his armies were led by the turtannu or commander-in-chief, and a rebellion, headed by his son Assur-danin-pal (Sardanapalus) broke out at home, where Nineveh and Assur were jealous of the preference shown for Calah. Its capital city Nineveh was built by Nimrod, according to the Bible (Genesis 10:11). As might be expected, education was confined to the upper classes, more especially to the priests and scribes. the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom.
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